A Brief History


The first reports of what has become known as cold fusion date back to 1926 when two Austrian born scientists, Friedrich Paneth and Kurt Peters, reported the transformation of hydrogen into helium. Ironically, the two scientists also became the first skeptics of cold fusion as they later retracted their claims believing that their results were the result of incorrect measurements. This is a critique that continues to be leveled by cold fusion skeptics.  In 1927, Swedish scientist, J. Tandberg,  stated that he had fused hydrogen into helium in a cell with palladium electrodes. He applied for a Swedish patent but, due to the retraction of Paneth and Peters, Tandberg’s patent application was eventually denied.  He was later denied an additional patent because he could not explain the process.

The work of cold fusion pioneer James Patterson may go back as far as 1949 as he reports documenting research as far back as that year.  He was studying for a doctorate degree in chemistry before he was hired by Dow Chemical in 1951, and he may have been aware of previous reports of the cold fusion phenomenon. Dr. Martin Fleishmann is on record as bec0ming aware of the Paneth and Peters experiments in 1949.

It is of note that Paneth, Peters, Patterson, Pons and Fleishmann were all chemists, not physicists.  Interestingly, Andrea Rossi has a degree in chemical engineering.  The cold fusion phenomenon is sometimes referred to as a chemically-assisted nuclear reaction (CANR), in addition to low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR).


The Experiment of Scaramuzzi
(This is from the cold fusion article on Spanish Wiki, with translation via Google).

In 1989, the Italian physicist Francesco Scaramuzzi , Laboratory of Frascati, the ENEA (National Agency for the Study of Nuclear and Alternative Energy), claimed to have successfully made the cold fusion experiment by changing some elements of Pons and Fleischmann. Unlike the U.S. approach, Scaramuzzi used high-pressure gas, designing a system where vacuum was created before the injection of gas, after graduating thermodynamic parameters such as pressure and temperature of melting.

Scaramuzzi electrolysis removed and changed by a ball of palladium and titanium immersion in deuterium gas, achieving a balance between gas pressure and temperature, thus leading to the merger.

When I realized that it was enough that deuterium enters the palladium crystal structure for such reactions, I thought to myself  why it was necessary to use electrolysis, a very complex thing, rather than directly, and why not use instead palladium another common metal such as titanium.” – Francesco Scaramuzzi

The first positive result occurred on April 5, 1989, just weeks after the experiment of Pons and Fleischmann, turning to successfully repeat a week later. Prof. Scaramuzzi measured neutrons emitted 491 units when only expected post 30.


Documented cold fusion research between the 1930s and 1989 is sparse but there were ongoing efforts before the announcement of Dr. Stanley Pons and Dr. Martin Fleischmann in 1989. The two links below provide additional history not included in the  above narrative.

link 1
link 2

Since 1989 efforts at cold fusion replication and ongoing experimentation have been more widespread than many people realize.  The links below provide documentation of some of those efforts but are admittedly incomplete.  For more extensive documentation, see the cold fusion library at lenr-canr.org, which includes a listing of over 3000 scientific papers, many downloadable.   Click on this link for more information specific to the energy catalyzer (e-Cat).


A Student’s Guide to Cold Fusion

What is Believed about Cold Fusion?

What is Cold Fusion?

The History of Cold Fusion in Italy PDF

CBS coverage 0f cold fusion announcement – 03/23/1989

Science: Putting The Heat on Cold Fusion  (Time Magazine) May 1989

Thermacore (thought to be an e-Cat precursor) link

Good Morning America – “The Hoax That Wasn’t” link

Amoco Oil successfully replicates cold fusion in 1994
Original – PDF
Edited – PDF

MIT and Cold Fusion – A Special Report link

Wire Mazazine – What if Cold Fusion is Real? link

Thermal and Nuclear Aspects of the Pd/D20 System – A Decade of Research at U.S. Navy Laboratories

Physicist Claims First Real Demonstration of Cold Fusion

Cold Fusion is Hot Again – 60 Minutes Transcript

Cold Fusion Proven True by U.S. Navy Researchers

‘Cold Fusion’ Rebirth? New Evidence For Existence Of Controversial Energy Source link

Defense Intelligence Agency Report on Cold Fusion (declassified) link

The 2011 Cold Fusion/Lattice Assisted Nuclear Reactions Colloquium at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Part 1 – PDF
Part 2 – PDF

Cold fusion rears its head as ‘E-Cat’ research promises to change the world (Wired Magazine on-line) link

Video link to Dr. Michael McKubre presentation on cold fusion, including the two main branches of cold fusion/LENR, i.e. electro-chemical palladium-deuterium (PD-D) and nickel-hydrogen gas-loading (Ni-H), as well as other important aspects of the technology since 1989 including the e-Cat.  This video is the first of 8, the rest of which can be viewed on YouTube or in the sidebar video player.

Cold Fusion and the Future link

The Evidence for LENR link

See the Defkalion cold fusion demo here.  There are 2 videos that are several hours long each.

Cyclone Power Technologies Adds Renowned Nuclear Physicist, Dr. Yeong Kim, to its Technical Advisory Team – The Wall Street Journal — 12/03/2013


For cold fusion/LENR theories, see the Theory page.


Notable Quotes

“Tests conducted at NASA Glenn Research Center in 1989 and elsewhere consistently showed evidence of anomalous heat during loading and unloading deuterium into bulk palladium. At one time called “cold fusion,” now called “low-energy nuclear reactions” (LENR), such effects are now published in peer-reviewed journals and are gaining attention and mainstream respectability.” 
NASA Glenn Research Center Website – link (at the bottom of page)

“Its a game changer.  It is going to be as big as the discovery of fire or invention of the wheel.
Gerald Celente  audio link

Cold fusion “to be the greatest investment opportunity of the 21rst century.”    link
Gerald Celente

“I think were almost over the “we don’t understand it” problem. I think we’re almost over the “this doesn’t produce anything useful” problem. So I think this will go forward fairly rapidly now and, if it does, this is capable of, by itself, completelychanging geo-economics, geo-politics and solving climate and energy.   audio link
Dennis Bushnell
Chief Scientist
NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia


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  16. There have been other, Dr. Louis Alvarez, 1946?) who produced heat from cold fusion reactions. Apparently, the Rossi E-Cat produces enough heat energy to go commercial? We should know soon when the Independent 3rd Party Report is published.
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